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  • 郝一雄,郭金虎.纳米材料在生物免疫传感器中应用的研究进展[J].同济大学学报(医学版),2020,41(4):530-536.    [点击复制]
  • HAO Yi-xiong,GUO Jin-hu.Research advances in application of nanomaterials in immunosensors[J].同济大学学报(医学版),2020,41(4):530-536.   [点击复制]
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纳米材料在生物免疫传感器中应用的研究进展
郝一雄,郭金虎
0
(同济大学附属东方医院医学检验科,上海 200120)
摘要:
生物传感器作为一门多学科交叉技术,将固化生物分子(DNA、抗体、抗原、细胞、组织等)作为敏感材料,与相应换能器相结合,通过检测光、电等信号变化最终达到检测生物分子的目的。作为生物传感器方向的一条重要分支,生物免疫传感器的设计主要以双抗体夹心、竞争法和无标记检测为主,检测方法主要以光学和电学检测为主。在传感器设计中创新性引入多种类型纳米颗粒,金属或金属氧化物,以及一些碳类纳米材料。由于此类纳米材料一些特殊性质的利用,使传感器的检测性能有了很大提高。对现有传感器设计中的纳米材料所发挥的一些作用,比如充当载体、信号放大、拟酶以及充当信号分子等进行了论述。此外,简述了纳米材料在生物传感器应用中的挑战和前景。
关键词:  生物传感器  免疫传感器  纳米材料  纳米粒子  检测
DOI:10.16118/j.1008-0392.2020.04.023
投稿时间:2019-10-09
基金项目:上海市浦东新区卫生系统重点学科建设项目(PWZxk2017-09)
Research advances in application of nanomaterials in immunosensors
HAO Yi-xiong,GUO Jin-hu
(Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China)
Abstract:
As a multidisciplinary cross-technology, biosensors detect biomolecule by using solidified biomolecules(DNA, antibodies, antigens, cells, tissues, etc.) as sensitive materials, combined with corresponding transducers, to detect changes of optical, electrical or other signals. For an important branch of the biosensor, the design of immunosensors is mainly based on sandwich assays, competitive assays and label-free assays of antigen-antibody binding. The assays are mainly based on optical and electrical detection. While the various types of nanoparticles are introduced in the design of these immunosensors to work together, mainly metal or metal oxides, as well as some carbon-based nanomaterials. The use of some special properties of these nanomaterials not only greatly improves the performance of the immunosensor, but also opens up a new direction for biosensor design. We summarized some effects of the nanomaterials used in recent designs of immunosensor, such as acting as carriers, signal amplification, enzymatics, and acting as signal molecules. In addition, the challenges and prospects of nanomaterials in biosensor applications are also briefly discussed.
Key words:  biosensor  immunosensor  nanomaterials  nanoparticles  detection

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